oe4625 Dredge Pumps and Slurry Transport Vaclav Matousek October 13, 2004


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1 oe4625 Vaclav Matousek October 13, Dredge Vermelding Pumps onderdeel and Slurry organisatie Transport
2 8. OPERATION LIMITS OF PUMPPIPELINE SYSTEM REQUIRED MANOMETRIC PRESSURE MAXIMUM VELOCITY INITIAL CAVITATION MINIMUM VELOCITY STATIONARY BED October 13,
3 REQUIRED MANOMETRIC PRESSURE DETERMINATION OF SUCTION PRESSURE DETERMINATION OF DISCHARGE PRESSURE October 13,
4 H man Q CURVE OF A CENTRIFUGAL PUMP A rotating impeller of a centrifugal pump adds mechanical energy to the medium flowing through a pump. As a result of an energy addition a pressure differential occurs in the pumped medium between the inlet and the outlet of a pump. The manometric pressure, P man, that is delivered by a pump to the medium, is given as ρ P = P P + ρ h + h + ( ) man p s m p s ( 2 2 V V ) m p s The manometric head, H man, that is delivered by a pump to the medium, is 2 H man = P ρ man f g October 13,
5 REQUIRED MANOMETRIC PRESSURE P = P P + ρ man p s m ( 2 2 V ) p Vs 2 P atm h d,pipe h s,pump P p =? P s h d,pump P s =? h s,pipe Pumppipeline system: mean velocity V mixture density r m October 13,
6 REQUIRED MANOMETRIC PRESSURE P s = absolute suction pressure P atm h d,pipe P s h s,pump h d,pump V Ps = Patm + ρf ghs, pipe ρmg( hs, pipe hs, pump ) ρf ghtotloss, s, m ρf 2 h s,pipe 2 s Pumppipeline system: mean velocity V mixture density r m October 13,
7 REQUIRED MANOMETRIC PRESSURE P p = absolute discharge pressure P atm h d,pipe P s h s,pump h d,pump V Pp = Patm + ρmg( hd, pipe + hd, pump ) + ρf ghtotloss, d, m ρf 2 h s,pipe 2 p Pumppipeline system: mean velocity V mixture density r m October 13,
8 MAXIMUM VELOCITY IN THE SYSTEM THE UPPER LIMIT FOR A SYSTEM OPERATION: VELOCITY AT THE INITIAL CAVITATION OF A PUMP October 13,
9 Static Pressure Variation Along System The staticpressure (P) variation along suction and discharge pipes connected with a pump (schematic). The static pressure varies due to changes in  the geodetic height (suction pipe)  the velocity [head] (change in pipe diameter in front of the pump) and due to the losses (both in suction and discharge pipes). October 13,
10 MAXIMUM VELOCITY IN THE SYSTEM Criterion for noncavitational operation of a system The no cavitation condition for a certain pumpsuction pipe combination is: (NPSH) REQUIRED < (NPSH) AVAILABLE The available Net Positive Suction Head is a total available energy head over the vapour pressure at the suction inlet to the pump during an operation at velocity V m in a suction pipe of a certain geometry and configuration. ( NPSH ) AVAILABLE 2 Ps Pvapour Vm = + ρ g 2g October 13, f
11 MAXIMUM VELOCITY IN THE SYSTEM Criterion for noncavitational operation of a system The no cavitation condition for a certain pumpsuction pipe combination is: (NPSH) REQUIRED < (NPSH) AVAILABLE The required Net Positive Suction Head is a minimum energy head a certain pump requires to prevent cavitation at its inlet. This is a head value at the incipient cavitation. ( NPSH ) REQUIRED 2 Ps,min Pvapour Vm = + ρ g 2g October 13, f
12 MAXIMUM VELOCITY IN THE SYSTEM Criterion for noncavitational operation of a system The no cavitation condition for a certain pumpsuction pipe combination is: (NPSH) REQUIRED < (NPSH) AVAILABLE The (NPSH) REQUIRED Q curve is a characteristic specific for each pump and it must be determined by a pump cavitation test. A design (dimensions, shape) and an operation (specific speed) of a pump decide the absolute suction pressure at the initial cavitation. ( NPSH ) REQUIRED 2 Ps,min Pvapour Vm = + ρ g 2g October 13, f
13 MAXIMUM VELOCITY IN THE SYSTEM Criterion for noncavitational operation of a system The no cavitation condition for a certain pumpsuction pipe combination is: (NPSH) REQUIRED < (NPSH) AVAILABLE At the incipient cavitation, the absolute suction pressure P s,min at the pump inlet is equal to the difference between the atmospheric pressure P atm and the socalled decisive vacuum (Dutch: maatgevend vacuum) (Vac) d, i.e. (Vac) d = P atm P s,min. October 13,
14 MAXIMUM VELOCITY IN THE SYSTEM Criterion for noncavitational operation of a system The upper limit for the working range of a pumppipeline system is given by points of intersection of a pump decisive vacuum curve and a set of vacuum curves of a suction pipe for various mixture densities. The vacuum curve of a suction pipe : Vac ρ g f = P P ρ g atm f S October 13,
15 MAXIMUM VELOCITY IN THE SYSTEM Criterion for noncavitational operation of a system The upper limit for the working range of a pumppipeline system is given by points of intersection of a pump decisive vacuum curve and a set of vacuum curves of a suction pipe for various mixture densities. The decisive vacuum curve of a pump : ( ) 2 Vac P d atm Pvapour Vm = + NPSH ρ g ρ g 2g f f REQUIRED October 13,
16 MAXIMUM VELOCITY IN THE SYSTEM Vac ρ g f = P P ρ g atm f S 2 ( ) Vac P d atm Pvapour Vm = + NPSH ρ g ρ g 2g f f R October 13,
17 MAXIMUM VELOCITY IN THE SYSTEM HOW TO AVOID CAVITATION In the design of a pumppipeline system: to reduce the static head that the pump must overcome, i.e. to put the pump as low as possible to reduce the head lost due to flow friction, i.e. to minimize local losses and a suction pipe length to increase pressure by using a larger pipe at the suction inlet of a pump. October 13,
18 MAXIMUM VELOCITY IN THE SYSTEM HOW TO AVOID CAVITATION During the operation of a system (the position of a pump and a geometry of a suction pipeline can not be changed): to reduce the head lost due to flow friction either by diminishing the mean mixture velocity or by reducing the mixture density in a suction pipeline. October 13,
19 MINIMUM VELOCITY IN THE SYSTEM THE LOWER LIMIT FOR A SYSTEM OPERATION: VELOCITY AT THE INITIAL STATIONARY BED IN A PIPE October 13,
20 MINIMUM VELOCITY IN THE SYSTEM Criterion for the depositfree operation of a system Mean mixture velocity must be higher than depositionlimit velocity: V m > V dl. October 13,
21 Empirical Model for Critical Velocity (MTI) C. Diagram for V cr : October 13,
22 Empirical Model for Critical Velocity (MTI) B. Correlation for V cr : V crit 1 6 Ss 1 1 C = D vd d C mf vd In the equation d mf [mm], D [m] and V cr [m/s]. October 13,
23 MINIMUM VELOCITY IN THE SYSTEM HOW TO AVOID STATIONARY BED 1. If the pipeline is composed of sections of different pipe sizes: the mixture flow rate must be maintained at the level assuring a supercritical regime (V m > V dl ) in the pipe section of the largest pipe diameter. 2. If the solids concentration fluctuates along a pipeline: the mixture flow rate must be maintained at the level assuring a supercritical regime in the section of an extreme concentration. For a prediction, use the highest value of the depositionlimit velocity from the entire range of expected solids concentrations. October 13,
24 MINIMUM VELOCITY IN THE SYSTEM HOW TO AVOID STATIONARY BED 3. If during a job a pipeline is prolonged or coarser solids are pumped: the flow rate supplied by a dredge pump might become insufficient to assure a supercritical regime in a pipeline. Then two solutions must be considered: to pump mixture at much lower concentration; this will lead to lower frictional losses and thus higher flow rate that might be high enough to avoid a thick stationary bed in a pipeline to install a booster station; this increases the manometric head provided by pumps and increase a flow rate. October 13,
25 EFFECT OF PUMP POSITION ON OPERATIONAL LIMITS If a pump (e.g. a submerged pump) is placed to a lower position within a pumppipeline system: the suction pipe becomes shorter the geodetic height over which a mixture has to be lifted becomes smaller. October 13,
26 EFFECT OF PUMP POSITION ON OPERATIONAL LIMITS October 13,
27 EFFECT OF PUMP POSITION ON OPERATIONAL LIMITS October 13,
28 OPERATION LIMITS AND PIPE LENGTH langste persleiding The maximum length of a discharge pipeline is limited by the depositionlimit velocity. The minimum length of a discharge pipeline is limited by the decisive vacuum of a pump. vacuüm (kpa) manometrische druk (kpa) constant toerental onderkritisch bovenkritisch werkgebied kortste persleiding maatgevend vacuüm zuigleidingkarakteristiek 0 1 Q kritisch 2 3 Q maatg. vacuüm debiet (m 3/s) October 13,
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